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Page 151

THE PARTIES

Money plays a part in the determination of results that no realistic study of the British political system can overlook. But if it has this importance on the national stage we must not forget to consider it in more direct relation to the business of elections in the constituencies. The bribery which flourished for so long after 1832 is to-day believed to have disappeared. What are the facts?
One authority tells us that after 1867 "indirect and disguised methods ... continued unabated, and with the passing of direct bribery, actually appeared to be increasing," adding that "the fear of eviction, or the hope of favours always determined the votes of the electors to a greater or less extent."' There has followed a series of further reforms, the first being the institution of the secret ballot in 1872. But by this "corrupt influence was by no means banished ... the borough electors were not liberated from the pressure exercised by employers and fellow-workmen; and the country voters followed the orders of the landed aristocracy in 1874 and in 1880 as implicitly as they did in 1868.(2) It is true that in the towns aristocratic authority diminished, but it was replaced by the party associations through their organisation of the canvass, and the influence of the party's agent became fully as autocratic as that exercised through economic power by the landlord, the customer, or the employer.
The Corrupt Practices Act of 1883, which ushered in the next stage of reform, imposed considerable limitations on the permitted election expenses and created several new offences, particularly the exercise by threat of undue influence But it left problems still unsolved. One of these, which is

1 Seymour, Electoral Reform in England and Wales, pp. 419-20.
2 Ibid., p. 433.

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where is HTML where is HEAD where is TITLE Money plays a part in what is determination of results that no realistic study of what is British political system can overlook. But if it has this importance on what is national stage we must not forget to consider it in more direct relation to what is business of elections in what is constituencies. what is bribery which flourished for so long after 1832 is to-day believed to have disappeared. What are what is facts? One authority tells us that after 1867 "indirect and disguised methods ... continued unabated, and with what is passing of direct bribery, actually appeared to be increasing," adding that "the fear of eviction, or what is hope of favours always determined what is votes of what is electors to a greater or less extent."' There has followed a series of further reforms, what is first being what is institution of what is secret ballot in 1872. But by this "corrupt influence was by no means banished ... what is borough electors were not liberated from what is pressure exercised by employers and fellow-workmen; and what is country voters followed what is orders of what is landed aristocracy in 1874 and in 1880 as implicitly as they did in 1868.(2) It is true that in what is towns aristocratic authority diminished, but it was replaced by what is party associations through their organisation of what is canvass, and what is influence of what is party's agent became fully as autocratic as that exercised through economic power by what is landlord, what is customer, or what is employer. what is Corrupt Practices Act of 1883, which ushered in what is next stage of reform, imposed considerable limitations on what is permitted election expenses and created several new offences, particularly what is exercise by threat of undue influence But it left problems still unsolved. One of these, which is 1 Seymour, Electoral Reform in England and Wales, pp. 419-20. 2 Ibid., p. 433. where is meta name="keywords" content="old books, Free book , free book offer , free audio books , free coloring book pages , free book reports , free audio book , audio books free download , book free , free guest book , books free , free book summaries , download free audio books , free childrens books." where is where are they now rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="../../style.css" where is meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" where is BODY bgColor=#ffffff text="#000000" where are they now ="#000000" v where are they now ="#FF0000" where is div align="center" where is strong where is strong where is a href="http://www.aaoldbooks.com" Books > where is a href="../default.asp" title="Book" Old Books > where is strong where is a href="default.asp" The British Constitution (1938) where is table width="700" border="1" align="center" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="0" where is center where is tr where is td width="160" align="center" valign="top" where is div align="center" where is td align="center" valign="top" where is div align="left" where is div align="center" where is p align="left" Page 151 where is strong THE PARTIES where is p align="justify" Money plays a part in what is determination of results that no realistic study of what is British political system can overlook. But if it has this importance on what is national stage we must not forget to consider it in more direct relation to what is business of elections in what is constituencies. what is bribery which flourished for so long after 1832 is to-day believed to have disappeared. What are what is facts? One authority tells us that after 1867 "indirect and disguised methods ... continued unabated, and with what is passing of direct bribery, actually appeared to be increasing," adding that "the fear of eviction, or what is hope of favours always determined the votes of what is electors to a greater or less extent."' There has followed a series of further reforms, what is first being what is institution of what is secret ballot in 1872. But by this "corrupt influence was by no means banished ... what is borough electors were not liberated from what is pressure exercised by employers and fellow-workmen; and what is country voters followed what is orders of what is landed aristocracy in 1874 and in 1880 as implicitly as they did in 1868.(2) It is true that in what is towns aristocratic authority diminished, but it was replaced by what is party associations through their organisation of what is canvass, and what is influence of what is party's agent became fully as autocratic as that exercised through economic power by what is landlord, what is customer, or what is employer. what is Corrupt Practices Act of 1883, which ushered in what is next stage of reform, imposed considerable limitations on what is permitted election expenses and created several new offences, particularly what is exercise by threat of undue influence But it left problems still unsolved. One of these, which is 1 Seymour, Electoral Reform in England and Wales, pp. 419-20. 2 Ibid., p. 433. where is Server.Execute("_SiteMap.asp") %

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