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Page 39

THE STOICS : EPICTETUS

trouble to have a theory of the universe, and they were as indifferent to the state, the family, and any organized social life, as a modern anarchist. The Stoics, on the other hand, came to terms with reason and with society. They provided a theory of life which satisfied the first and was consistent with the second. The Cynic was, in theory at least, a homeless ascetic, an anarchic individualist, indifferent to systems of thought. The Stoic accepted the state and indeed was a bulwark of it ; and he built up a complicated philosophy of the universe with a physic, metaphysic, logic, and psychology of his own. Here we are concerned only with his theory of morals, of which we shall see something in the teaching of two individuals who lived more than 300 years after its founder. Of the first of these, Epictetus (born about A. D. 50), we know little more than that he lived in the first century after Christ, that he was a slave and lame. It is said that his leg was broken by a brutal master. He was presumably of Asiatic birth, and his name, which means 'Acquired', was a common slave's name. He was in the household of one of the great freedmen of the Emperor Nero's court. He became free, lectured in Rome, was expelled from Italy, and took refuge in Nicopolis, on the other side of the Adriatic. He wrote no books ; his teaching has survived in four books of Discourses and a brief Enclaeiridion or Manual compiled by one of his pupils, a young Roman who later had a distinguished political career. The Discourses are notes of lectures, replies to pupils, and conversations with all types of persons, from affected young men of society to important officials like the Commissioner of the Free Cities of Asia. The Manual is a brief summary of his teaching.
Little as we know of the life of Epictetus we can guess that some defensive armour against the world was needed by an Asiatic slave in Nero's court, even more than by the well-to-do Greeks and Romans who came to learn from him how to face the chances of life under a despotism. His armour was his creed. The foundation of Stoicism is the belief that God made and governs the Universe, and that we are a part of Him. On this basis is built a creed of conduct which can be put in two questions and answers : How is man to live ? As Nature commands. What is Man's real Nature ? His Reason, a spark of God. Man must obey it. We are composed, says Epictetus, of two elements-the body which we share with

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where is HTML where is HEAD where is TITLE trouble to have a theory of what is universe, and they were as indifferent to what is state, what is family, and any organized social life, as a modern anarchist. what is Stoics, on what is other hand, came to terms with reason and with society. They provided a theory of life which satisfied what is first and was consistent with what is second. what is Cynic was, in theory at least, a homeless ascetic, an anarchic individualist, indifferent to systems of thought. what is Stoic accepted what is state and indeed was a bulwark of it ; and he built up a complicated philosophy of what is universe with a physic, metaphysic, logic, and psychology of his own. Here we are concerned only with his theory of morals, of which we shall see something in what is teaching of two individuals who lived more than 30o years after its founder. Of what is first of these, Epictetus (born about A. D. 50), we know little more than that he lived in what is first century after Christ, that he was a slave and lame. It is said that his leg was broken by a brutal master. He was presumably of Asiatic birth, and his name, which means 'Acquired', was a common slave's name. He was in what is household of one of what is great freedmen of what is Emperor Nero's court. He became free, lectured in Rome, was expelled from Italy, and took refuge in Nicopolis, on what is other side of what is Adriatic. He wrote no books ; his teaching has survived in four books of Discourses and a brief Enclaeiridion or Manual compiled by one of his pupils, a young Roman who later had a distinguished political career. what is Discourses are notes of lectures, replies to pupils, and conversations with all types of persons, from affected young men of society to important officials like what is Commissioner of what is Free Cities of Asia. what is Manual is a brief summary of his teaching. Little as we know of what is life of Epictetus we can guess that some defensive armour against what is world was needed by an Asiatic slave in Nero's court, even more than by what is well-to-do Greeks and Romans who came to learn from him how to face what is chances of life under a despotism. His armour was his creed. what is foundation of Stoicism is what is belief that God made and governs what is Universe, and that we are a part of Him. On this basis is built a creed of conduct which can be put in two questions and answers : How is man to live ? As Nature commands. What is Man's real Nature ? His Reason, a spark of God. Man must obey it. We are composed, says Epictetus, of two elements-the body which we share with where is meta name="keywords" content="old books, Free book , free book offer , free audio books , free coloring book pages , free book reports , free audio book , audio books free download , book free , free guest book , books free , free book summaries , download free audio books , free childrens books." where is where are they now rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="../../style.css" where is meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" where is BODY bgColor=#ffffff text="#000000" where are they now ="#000000" v where are they now ="#FF0000" where is div align="center" where is strong where is strong where is a href="http://www.aaoldbooks.com" Books > where is a href="../default.asp" title="Book" Old Books > where is strong where is a href="default.asp" title="The Collected Short Stories Of Ring Lander (1924)" The Mission Of Greece (1928) where is table width="700" border="1" align="center" cellpadding="15" cellspacing="0" where is center where is tr where is td width="160" align="center" valign="top" where is div align="center" where is td align="center" valign="top" where is div align="left" where is div align="center" where is p align="left" Page 39 where is p align="center" where is strong THE STOICS : EPICTETUS where is p align="justify" trouble to have a theory of what is universe, and they were as indifferent to what is state, what is family, and any organized social life, as a modern anarchist. what is Stoics, on what is other hand, came to terms with reason and with society. They provided a theory of life which satisfied what is first and was consistent with what is second. what is Cynic was, in theory at least, a homeless ascetic, an anarchic individualist, indifferent to systems of thought. what is Stoic accepted what is state and indeed was a bulwark of it ; and he built up a complicated philosophy of what is universe with a physic, metaphysic, logic, and psychology of his own. Here we are concerned only with his theory of morals, of which we shall see something in what is teaching of two individuals who lived more than 300 years after its founder. Of what is first of these, Epictetus (born about A. D. 50), we know little more than that he lived in what is first century after Christ, that he was a slave and lame. It is said that his leg was broken by a brutal master. He was presumably of Asiatic birth, and his name, which means 'Acquired', was a common slave's name. He was in the household of one of what is great freedmen of what is Emperor Nero's court. He became free, lectured in Rome, was expelled from Italy, and took refuge in Nicopolis, on what is other side of what is Adriatic. He wrote no books ; his teaching has survived in four books of Discourses and a brief Enclaeiridion or Manual compiled by one of his pupils, a young Roman who later had a distinguished political career. The Discourses are notes of lectures, replies to pupils, and conversations with all types of persons, from affected young men of society to important officials like what is Commissioner of what is Free Cities of Asia. what is Manual is a brief summary of his teaching. Little as we know of what is life of Epictetus we can guess that some defensive armour against what is world was needed by an Asiatic slave in Nero's court, even more than by what is well-to-do Greeks and Romans who came to learn from him how to face what is chances of life under a despotism. His armour was his creed. what is foundation of Stoicism is what is belief that God made and governs what is Universe, and that we are a part of Him. On this basis is built a creed of conduct which can be put in two questions and answers : How is man to live ? As Nature commands. What is Man's real Nature ? His Reason, a spark of God. Man must obey it. We are composed, says Epictetus, of two elements-the body which we share with where is Server.Execute("_SiteMap.asp") %

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